With its classical 4-door saloon styling the Volvo 460 meets the highest consumer requirements for generous interior space and comfort in its class - yet does this within compact exterior dimensions which make it easy to manoeuvre and park in city-street driving.
From all angles it is easily recognizable as a Volvo for it shares many family features with other Volvo models. This includes the long, high roofline and near vertical side windows, typical space-maximizing and comfort-enhancing attributes of a Volvo. Other family resemblances -- appropriately to other top of- the range Volvo models, notably the 700 series -- are the steeply sloping nose section, the grille with vertical bars, the large rectangular headlights and the colour co-ordinated bumpers. The aerodynamic wedge shape of the body enhances stability at motorway speeds and provides a comfortably quiet interior. This good airflow management is obtained without concession to interior space and comfort. Having regard to the modest amount of space it takes up on the road, the Volvo 460 is an uncommonly roomy car.
In the remarkably roomy interior, the dashboard centre console is angled, cockpit style, towards the driver, bringing all the controls within easy reach. For driver convenience and enhanced safety, the twin column stalks can be operated with the hands still on the steering wheel, while a full complement of warning lamps and instruments is incorporated directly ahead of the driver in a reflection free centre binnacle. All 460's have a height adjustable steering column and this, in combination with the height adjustable seat and other adjustment modes, allows virtually every driver to find the ideal steering position. In addition to the usual high level of standard equipment offered by every Volvo, which includes rear head restraints and (460 Turbo + GLE) power windows in the front doors, customers have a choice of different equipment and trim levels.
With the 460 models Volvo is continuing the variants strategy introduced with the 440, which gives the consumer a comprehensive choice of equipment and engines with gradually increasing price levels. In this way the individual needs of the consumer can be maximized in the form of a 'customized' car which matches his or her personal style.
In the 460 range the customer can choose between three levels of equipment and trim and there is a choice of three power units. For details of the model and trim programme in your own country, please refer to the specifications chapter of this publication.
Specification as Comfort, plus driver's door lock illumination, electrically operated and heated door mirrors, reading lamps at front and rear, power windows for the front doors and tinted glass all round. This specification is available in combination with the B18KP, B18KPD, B18EP and B18FP engines.
The most complete specification of all, available only on the 460 Turbo, including uprated suspension and flush, aerodynamic alloy wheels. This specification is available in combination with the B18FTM and B18FT engines.
Owners of the new Volvo 460 can tailor their cars to an even higher level of personalized transport with the wide range of Volvo accessories and works fitted options. Immediately available at the launch of the 460, they have been developed to match the specific characteristics of the car and are built to Volvo specifications and the usual high standards of quality. Options include an electric tilt/slide glass sun roof with an internal sunshade and full air-conditioning, designed to cut in at only 40% of its maximum power before building up progressively to its maximum, thus avoiding any power hesitation from the engine, which is often the case with other types of air-conditioning. Leather upholstery is also available as an option, with special anti-slip material at the body contact points.
Front-mounted in the transaxte configuration, the same base petrol engine (1721 cc) is used throughout the 460 range with a choice of fuel metering systems ranging from twin choke downdraught carburettors to multipoint fuel injection and water-cooled turbocharged units with intercooling. Power choice ranges from 64 kW/87 hp to 88 kWh 20 hp. Exceptional low-end torque (about 90% of maximum from 2000 rpm) across a wide engine speed band and the ability to run on unleaded petrol are features of all the engines in the range. The engine is supported on 1 conventional engine mounting and 2 hydro-elastic mountings, which absorb engine vibrations. Torque reactions are taken up by a small hydraulic shock absorber. On the fuel injection and turbocharged engines a knock sensor automatically adjusts the ignition timing, ensuring consistently optimum performance even if a lower grade fuel has to be used occasionally, without risk of damaging the engine.
The digital engine management system on the fuel injection and turbocharged engines controls the quantity of injected fuel, the ignition system, the idle speed and the EVAP system (Lambda sensor engines) and also regulates a number of subsidiary functions. All these functions are controlled by a single electronic control unit.
For correct functioning, an electronically controlled engine management system is largely dependent upon data received from sensors located around the engine. If any of these sensors fail, or if a fault occurs in a wiring harness, the system will not function properly. On the B18 injection engines Volvo has therefore stored limiting values for various input signals in the memory of the microprocessor. If the incoming signals vary outside these limits, the microprocessor takes over and enters the pre-programmed average values into the system. This enhances the reliability of these models considerably because even with defective sensor systems the car can still be started and driven home or to the workshop.
The pressure in the fuel tank is regulated by valves and the fuel filler system incorporates a roll-over check valve which closes off the fuel filler pipe and prevents spillage even if the vehicle should be inverted after a crash. On B18FP and B18FT models, evaporating petrol fumes are conducted to a carbon (activated charcoal) absorption canister in the right-hand front wing, where petrol elements are absorbed and, under certain engine operating conditions, drawn via the inlet manifold into the engine where they participate in the combustion process.
All fuel injection and turbocharged engines feature a separate auxiliary water pump which continues to cool the cylinder head after the engine is switched off if the temperature is above a pre-set safety value. This enhances the reliability and life performance of these models and ensures first-time starting in even the hottest weather conditions.
The turbocharger is water-cooled and the cooling action continues after the engine is switched off, thereby virtually eliminating the possibility of turbo shaft bearing seizure. Other significant features of the turbocharger unit include the small diameter of the vanes and the electronically controlled turbo boost. This virtually eliminates the uncomfortable and disconcerting turbo-lag which is often experienced in other turbocharged cars, while allowing maximum torque to be obtained low down the engine speed band (1800 rpm).
The diagnostic system is used for fault tracing operations. It has three different test functions: one for reading the malfunctions stored in the memory and two for testing the incoming data. Communication with the diagnostic system takes place via a diagnostic plug-in tester located in the engine compartment on the turret of the left-hand MacPherson strut. The data stored in the memory are indicated by a code which is formed by the flashing of the test LED on the diagnostic tester.
The diagnostic system continuously tests the functioning of the engine management system when the engine is running. If a malfunction occurs in the system, this will be stored in the memory of the diagnostic system as a fault. 22 different malfunctions can be identified and stored in the memory as fault codes. Transient faults (faults which disappear spontaneously after a while) are also recorded and can therefore be used for preventive fault tracing by the dealer. There is also a code which indicates when there are no faults in the system.
These 4-cylinder engines, which benefit from Volvo's low-friction technology, are responsive and free-revving: good driveability properties which are partly the result of using an overhead camshaft, driven by a toothed belt which acts directly on the valves. They all have a light alloy Heron head with combustion chambers in the piston crowns which allows excellent water flow management and therefore leads to greater thermal efficiency and an enhanced power output/ fuel consumption ratio. An oil cooler is fitted as standard.
This optimum water flow management results in good thermal efficiency with enhanced cooling of the valves and injectors. The relatively low thermal stress on the cylinder head and valves gives these parts and the spark plugs and injectors a longer life expectancy. The exhaust valves are coated with the extremely hard, wear and heat-resistant stellite steel alloy; heavy duty hardened steel is used for the valve seats - which makes them suitable for running on alternative fuels such as the hotter-burning propane. Sodium cooled exhaust valves are used in the turbocharged engines, while all fuel injected engines have an auxiliary water pump for continued cooling of the cylinder head after the engine has been switched off.
As a result of the superior reliability of these vital parts, no adjustments are necessary to the valve gear, timing, timing belt and the stainless steel flexible exhaust coupling for the first 80,000 km.
Various emission control systems are available for the different models and markets, depending upon local emission legislation and the availability of unleaded fuel (see enclosed table 2).
Engines without a catalytic converter are available as an option in markets where unleaded petrol is not readily available.
Front suspension is by MacPherson struts and coil springs located by lower wishbones with special bushes to allow controlled compliance and incorporating an anti-roll bar with non-compliant linkages. With this front wheel geometry all 460's are designed with a self-correcting steering action to compensate for sudden cross-wind forces. This also contributes to the neutral to mild under steer characteristic of the Volvo 460.
Rear suspension is by a constant track beam axle located transversely by a Panhard rod and a longitudinal Watt linkage at each end, thus ensuring constant wheel angles and track without creating undesirable steering effects. Twin tube hydraulic dampers are used all round.
All 460's are front wheel drive and equipped as standard with a 5-speed overdrive gearbox, with close ratio gears on the Turbo variant to exploit the extra performance potential of this model.
The rack-and-pinion steering gear on the 460 GL features a variable steering ratio. This has been achieved by varying the pressure points on the tooth flanks of the rack from the centre position to the two extremities. In this way a positive steering feel is obtained at all driving speeds while less effort is needed to turn the steering wheel when parking.
Power steering is standard equipment on the 460 Turbo and GLE models and is available as an option on the 460 GL. The pump of the hydraulic servo mechanism operates on the drooping flow principle, in which progressively increasing assistance is offered as the engine speed decreases. The benefits are: good steering feel at all driving speeds and very low effort when parking.
The Volvo 460's have dual circuit brakes in a diagonal split with discs all round (rear drums on carburettor models). Depending upon the market in question, ABS is standard or available as an option. Carburettor engine models then have disc brakes on the rear axle instead of drums.
This optional ABS is controlled by two microprocessors in the car's Electronic Control Unit, which offers fail-safe reliability by a double control logic, and responds to input from speed sensors at each wheel. The hydraulic pressure is regulated in 3 circuits. Apart from its reliability, this Alfred Teves Mk II system was chosen and fine-tuned for the 460 on account of its small dimensions and low weight and because of the very fast response offered by its integrated design and its sophisticated electronic circuitry.
As it is based on the Volvo 480, the new Volvo 460 naturally offers commensurate performance. Excellent road holding, crisp acceleration and good top speed are matched by a high level of comfort. Active safety and driving pleasure are therefore to the usual Volvo standards.
As a pioneer of automotive safety, Volvo traditionally builds extra margins of strength into its cars. It is the only way to achieve the high levels of safety and longevity that are required by Volvo standards.
In the unitary body of the Volvo 460 the passenger compartment is of the safety cage design. The single pressings of the uniside panels contribute to the high strength of the safety cage: a cell-like survival area protected at front and rear by crumple zones.
The front crumple zone is formed by the engine compartment and the chassis front side members; at the rear by the boot area and the chassis rear side members. The fuel tank is safely located away from the rear end, slightly ahead of the rear axle.
To lessen the risk of serious injury to the passengers all four doors have an integrated side intrusion bar in the form of a tough steel pipe made of High Strength Steel.
The roof cant rails together with the strong windscreen frame, roof rear cross-section, A and B-pillars and triangular C/D-pillars (rear quarter light) can easily support the weight of the car in a roll-over crash. Not only do the roof pillars have high bending resistance to prevent roof intrusion from vertical impact if the car overturns, this also prevents the pillars from collapsing under the stress of lateral forces when the car is sliding inverted on its roof. The roof structure - box-section cant rails connected to strong A to D pillars acts as a roll bar and is designed to prevent the roof collapsing in a roll-over crash.
All four doors are fitted with anti-burst door locks which keep the doors safely closed and prevent the passengers from being ejected from the car in a collision.
The door handles and inside latches have been specially designed from the viewpoint of safety. They cannot open inadvertently in a crash.
All variants have childproof locks as standard equipment on the rear doors.
The spare wheel is located in a well in the boot floor, angled downwards at the front. In a rear end collision the rear floor section will tilt slightly, bringing the spare wheel up against the strong transverse member under the rear seat. In this way extra energy absorption is obtained. In cars without this design the spare wheel may be forced into the passenger compartment via the rear seat backrest.
The fuel tank is located outside the passenger compartment under the floor pan below the rear seat. This location is ahead of the rear axle and well away from the rear bumper, therefore safely out of the crash zone. The fuel tank and fuel filler pipe are made of high density polyethylene. This material is relatively light in weight; it cannot corrode and is very easily moulded, even into intricate shapes. Crash tests have shown an extremely high degree of deformability of the fuel tank without rupture. In a crash involving severe deformation, the filler pipe is designed to shear out of the body side wall with the filler cap still in place and the pipe still attached to the fuel tank.
Four 3-point inertia reel seat belts are fitted as standard at front and rear. A centre lap belt is also provided for the rear seat. The locking action responds to the belt's extraction speed as well as to deceleration forces in all directions, while the retracting mechanism is designed to give a low webbing tension when the seat belt is being worn by the driver/passengers.
Two 'Fasten seat belt' warning lamps are provided: one in front of the driver in the instrument panel, one at the rear of the tunnel console facing the rear seat passengers. They are both activated by the front seat belt warning systems.
The lower anchorage points of the front seats are mounted directly on the seat frame. This ensures optimum positioning of the lower part of the webbing over the pelvis, irrespective of the fore-and-aft position of the seat.
All 5 seating positions have an 'anti-submarining' device to prevent the occupants sliding forwards and under the seat belt in a collision.
In the front seats this is a steel pipe transversely located at the leading edge of the cushion under the upholstery padding. At the rear this is achieved by the angle of the floor pan under the seats in relation to the cushion and the location of the belt locks (through the seat cushions, anchored to the floor).
The wraparound bumpers are designed to withstand low-speed impacts and easily comply with all European safety legislation. The side mouldings give additional protection against minor parking damage.
The Volvo 460 is equipped with a collapsible steering column and steering wheel. This safety type steering gear collapses on a progressive scale, depending upon the severity of the impact force, and features a double-jointed steering column with a collapsible lower steering shaft. To maximize driver protection in frontal collisions, the steering gear is located behind the engine and behind the centre-line of the front wheels.
The various parts of the steering system are interactive, collapsing gradually in a collision and minimizing the risk of steering column intrusion and injury to the driver.
- Steering wheel with large compressible chest pad
- Double-jointed collapsible steering column
- Collapsible lower steering shaft
Upon initial impact the steering wheel/chest pad aligns with the driver's body and distributes the pressure evenly over a large area of the driver's chest. As the pressure builds up, the steering wheel collapses progressively towards the steering column.
At very high impact forces the middle section of the steering column remains immovably and safely fixed to the scuttle and the body cross-member; the lower section of the steering shaft then collapses inwards and folds under the passenger compartment.
A long life was one of the foremost design targets for the new Volvo 460. This is assured not only by Volvo's long experience in achieving the highest build quality and the use of high quality materials, but also by the unfailing precision of robotized assembly at one of Europe's most advanced automobile manufacturing plants.
About 50 kg of High Strength Steel are incorporated in the floor pan and body of the Volvo 460. This has been done in order to ensure a very strong structure with a relatively low weight.
Lightweight composite materials - the ultimate in rust protection - are used for components which are in the front line of corrosion attack. These include the wheel arch liners, bumper skins, rear apron, fuel tank and filler pipe, windscreen surround and additional sill protection mouldings between the front and rear wheel arches.
Extensive use is made of zinc-coated steel on account of its excellent anticorrosion properties. About 60% of the total bodyweight is in single or double sided zinc-coated steel.
Volvo has always enjoyed a reputation for caring about the quality of its products. Lasting quality is built into every Volvo, the kind of quality that gives our customers a car that is safe and economical to run - and a pleasure to own. In recent years the total economy of ownership of a Volvo has been further enhanced by a unique rust proofing and surface treatment programme. This corrosion-beating treatment is so effective that Volvo now gives an 8-year Corrosion Protection Warranty against rust starting to form from within. There are no post-treatment charges for the customer and the warranty is transferred with the car upon change of ownership.
Volvo's ultramodern, fully computerized surface treatment and spray-painting facility is a sure guarantee that all our cars receive the best anti-rust treatment that state of the art paint technology allows.
14 layers of corrosion protective material (13 for solid colours) are applied during a unique 22-stage programme, including full underbody coating and inner cavity rust proofing.
Few will deny that Volvos have always had a distinctive styling. This individuality of design is again reflected in the young and dynamic Volvo 460, which can be further individualized with Volvo's variants strategy. This approach to customizing serves to reinforce the personal appeal of the new Volvo to customers in the upper middle class segment. It does this by offering a wide choice of engines and trim specifications, enhancing the customer's level of driving pleasure and bringing the Volvo standard of personalized motoring to an even higher level.